Frequent prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) testing is critical for millions of people on lifelong anticoagulation with warfarin. Currently, testing is performed in hospital laboratories or with expensive point-of-care devices limiting the ability to test frequently and affordably. We report a proof-of-concept PT/INR testing system that uses the vibration motor and camera on smartphones to track micro-mechanical movements of a copper particle. The smartphone system computed the PT/INR with inter-class correlation coefficients of 0.963 and 0.966, compared to a clinical-grade coagulation analyzer for 140 plasma samples and demonstrated similar results for 80 whole blood samples using a single drop of blood (10 μl). When tested with 79 blood samples with coagulopathic conditions, the smartphone system demonstrated a correlation of 0.974 for both PT/INR. Given the ubiquity of smartphones in the global setting, this proof-of-concept technology may provide affordable and effective PT and INR testing in low-resource environments.

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